Linux Commands Cheat Sheet

This Linux commands cheat sheet helps you anytime.

Basic Linux commands

CommandDescription
lsLists all files and directories in the present working directory
ls-RLists files in sub-directories as well
ls-aLists hidden files as well
ls-alLists files and directories with detailed information like permissions,size, owner, etc.
cd or cd ~Navigate to HOME directory
cd ..Move one level up
cdTo change to a particular directory
cd /Move to the root directory
cat > filenameCreates a new file
cat filenameDisplays the file content
cat file1 file2 > file3Joins two files (file1, file2) and stores the output in a new file (file3)
mv file "new file path"Moves the files to the new location
mv filename new_file_nameRenames the file to a new filename
sudoAllows regular users to run programs with the security privileges of the superuser or root
rm filenameDeletes a file
manGives help information on a command
historyGives a list of all past commands typed in the current terminal session
clearClears the terminal
mkdir directorynameCreates a new directory in the present working directory or a at the specified path
rmdirDeletes a directory
mvRenames a directory
pr -xDivides the file into x columns
pr -hAssigns a header to the file
pr -nDenotes the file with Line Numbers
lp -nc , lpr cPrints “c” copies of the File
lp-d lp-PSpecifies name of the printer
apt-getCommand used to install and update packages
mail -s 'subject' -c 'cc-address'   -b 'bcc-address' 'to-address'Command to send email
mail -s "Subject" to-address < FilenameCommand to send email with attachment

File Permission commands

CommandDescription
ls-lto show file type and access permission
rread permission
wwrite permission
xexecute permission
-=no permission
Chown userFor changing the ownership of a file/directory
Chown user:group filenamechange the user as well as group for a file or directory

Environment Variables command

CommandDescription
echo $VARIABLETo display value of a variable
envDisplays all environment variables
VARIABLE_NAME= variable_valueCreate a new variable
UnsetRemove a variable
export Variable=valueTo set value of an environment variable

User management commands of Linux

CommandDescription
sudo adduser usernameTo add a new user to your system.
sudo passwd -l 'username'change password
sudo userdel -r 'username'to delete user
sudo usermod -a -G GROUPNAME USERNAMEGive user rights
sudo deluser USER GROUPNAMEDelete user from a group
fingerGives information on all logged in user
finger usernameGives information of a particular user

Networking command

CommandDescription
SSH [email protected] or hostnamelogin into a remote Linux machine using SSH
Ping hostname="" or =""To ping and Analyzing network and host connections
dirDisplay files in the current directory of a remote computer
cd "dirname"change directory to “dirname” on a remote computer
put fileupload ‘file’ from local to remote computer
get fileDownload ‘file’ from remote to local computer
quitLogout

Process command

CommandDescription
bgTo send a process to the background
fgTo run a stopped process in the foreground
topDetails on all Active Processes
psGive the status of processes running for a user
ps PIDGives the status of a particular process
pidofGives the Process ID (PID) of a process
kill PIDKills a process
niceStarts a process with a given priority
reniceChanges priority of an already running process
dfGives free hard disk space on your system
freeGives free RAM on your system

VI Editing Commands

CommandDescription
iInsert at cursor (goes into insert mode)
aWrite after cursor (goes into insert mode)
AWrite at the end of line (goes into insert mode)
ESCTerminate insert mode
uUndo last change
UUndo all changes to the entire line
oOpen a new line (goes into insert mode)
ddDelete line
3ddDelete 3 lines
DDelete contents of line after the cursor
CDelete contents of a line after the cursor and insert new text. Press ESC key to end insertion.
dwDelete word
4dwDelete 4 words
cwChange word
xDelete character at the cursor
rReplace character
ROverwrite characters from cursor onward
sSubstitute one character under cursor continue to insert
SSubstitute entire line and begin to insert at the beginning of the line
~Change case of individual character

Search Files Commands

CommandDescription
grep pattern filesSearch for pattern in files
grep -iCase insens­itive search
grep -rRecursive search
grep -vInverted search
grep -oShow matched part of file only
find /dir/ -name name*Find files starting with name in dir
find /dir/ -user nameFind files owned by name in dir
find /dir/ -mmin numFind files modifed less than num minutes ago in dir
whereis commandFind binary / source / manual for command
locate fileFind file (quick search of system index)

Bash Commands

CommandDescription
uname -aShow system and kernel
head -n1 /etc/issueShow distri­bution
mountShow mounted filesy­stems
dateShow system date
uptimeShow uptime
whoamiShow your username
man commandShow manual for command

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