#25 HTML Input Attributes

This tutorial describes the different attributes for the HTML <input> element.

The value Attribute

The HTML input value attribute defines the initial value or default value of an input field.

<form>
  <label for="fname">First name:</label><br>
  <input type="text" id="fname" name="fname" value="John"><br>
  <label for="lname">Last name:</label><br>
  <input type="text" id="lname" name="lname" value="Doe">
</form>

The readonly Attribute

The input readonly attribute specifies that an input field is read-only.

A read-only input field cannot be modified by the user (however, a user can tab to it, highlight it, and copy the text from it).

The value of a read-only input field will be sent when submitting the form!

<form>
  <label for="fname">First name:</label><br>
  <input type="text" id="fname" name="fname" value="John" readonly><br>
  <label for="lname">Last name:</label><br>
  <input type="text" id="lname" name="lname" value="Doe">
</form>

The disabled Attribute

The HTML disabled attribute when applied then it disable that input field. The disabled field does not allow the user to interact with that field.

A disabled input field is unusable and un-clickable.

The value of a disabled input field will not be sent when submitting the form!

<form>
  <label for="fname">First name:</label><br>
  <input type="text" id="fname" name="fname" value="John" disabled><br>
  <label for="lname">Last name:</label><br>
  <input type="text" id="lname" name="lname" value="Doe">
  <button type="submit" disabled>Submit</button>
</form>

The size Attribute

The input size attribute specifies the visible width, in characters, of an input field.

The default value for size is 20.

Note: The size attribute works with the following input types: text, search, tel, url, email, and password.

<form>
  <label for="fname">First name:</label><br>
  <input type="text" id="fname" name="fname" size="50"><br>
  <label for="pin">PIN:</label><br>
  <input type="text" id="pin" name="pin" size="4">
</form>

The maxlength Attribute

The input maxlength attribute specifies the maximum number of characters allowed in an input field.

Note: When a maxlength is set, the input field will not accept more than the specified number of characters. However, this attribute does not provide any feedback. So, if you want to alert the user, you must write JavaScript code.

<form>
  <label for="fname">First name:</label><br>
  <input type="text" id="fname" name="fname" size="50"><br>
  <label for="pin">PIN:</label><br>
  <input type="text" id="pin" name="pin" maxlength="4" size="4">
</form>

The min and max Attributes

The input min and max attributes specify the minimum and maximum values for an input field.

The min and max attributes work with the following input types: number, range, date, datetime-local, month, time and week.

Tip: Use the max and min attributes together to create a range of legal values.

<form>
  <label for="datemax">Enter a date before 1980-01-01:</label>
  <input type="date" id="datemax" name="datemax" max="1979-12-31"><br><br>

  <label for="datemin">Enter a date after 2000-01-01:</label>
  <input type="date" id="datemin" name="datemin" min="2000-01-02"><br><br>

  <label for="quantity">Quantity (between 1 and 5):</label>
  <input type="number" id="quantity" name="quantity" min="1" max="5">
</form>

The multiple Attribute

The input multiple attribute specifies that the user is allowed to enter more than one value in an input field.

The multiple attribute works with the following input types: email, and file.

<form>
  <label for="files">Select files:</label>
  <input type="file" id="files" name="files" multiple>
</form>

The pattern Attribute

The input pattern attribute specifies a regular expression that the input field’s value is checked against, when the form is submitted.

The pattern attribute works with the following input types: text, date, search, url, tel, email, and password.

Tip: Use the global title attribute to describe the pattern to help the user.

Tip: Learn more about regular expressions in our JavaScript tutorial.

<form>
  <label for="country_code">Country code:</label>
  <input type="text" id="country_code" name="country_code"
  pattern="[A-Za-z]{3}" title="Three letter country code">
</form>

The placeholder Attribute

The input placeholder attribute specifies a short hint that describes the expected value of an input field (a sample value or a short description of the expected format).

The short hint is displayed in the input field before the user enters a value.

The placeholder attribute works with the following input types: text, search, url, tel, email, and password.

<form>
  <label for="phone">Enter a phone number:</label>
  <input type="tel" id="phone" name="phone"
  placeholder="123-45-678"
  pattern="[0-9]{3}-[0-9]{2}-[0-9]{3}">
</form>

The required Attribute

The input required attribute specifies that an input field must be filled out before submitting the form.

The required attribute works with the following input types: text, search, url, tel, email, password, date pickers, number, checkbox, radio, and file.

<form>
  <label for="username">Username:</label>
  <input type="text" id="username" name="username" required>
</form>

The step Attribute

The input step attribute specifies the legal number intervals for an input field.

Example: if step=”3″, legal numbers could be -3, 0, 3, 6, etc.

Tip: This attribute can be used together with the max and min attributes to create a range of legal values.

The step attribute works with the following input types: number, range, date, datetime-local, month, time and week.

<form>
  <label for="points">Points:</label>
  <input type="number" id="points" name="points" step="3">
</form>

Note: Input restrictions are not foolproof, and JavaScript provides many ways to add illegal input. To safely restrict input, it must also be checked by the receiver (the server)!

The autofocus Attribute

The input autofocus attribute specifies that an input field should automatically get focus when the page loads.

<form>
  <label for="fname">First name:</label><br>
  <input type="text" id="fname" name="fname" autofocus><br>
  <label for="lname">Last name:</label><br>
  <input type="text" id="lname" name="lname">
</form>

The height and width Attributes

The input height and width attributes specify the height and width of an <input type="image"> element.

Tip: Always specify both the height and width attributes for images. If height and width are set, the space required for the image is reserved when the page is loaded. Without these attributes, the browser does not know the size of the image, and cannot reserve the appropriate space to it. The effect will be that the page layout will change during loading (while the images load).

<form>
  <label for="fname">First name:</label>
  <input type="text" id="fname" name="fname"><br><br>
  <label for="lname">Last name:</label>
  <input type="text" id="lname" name="lname"><br><br>
  <input type="image" src="img_submit.gif" alt="Submit" width="48" height="48">
</form>

The list Attribute

The input list attribute refers to a <datalist> element that contains pre-defined options for an <input> element.

<form>
  <input list="browsers">
  <datalist id="browsers">
    <option value="Internet Explorer">
    <option value="Firefox">
    <option value="Chrome">
    <option value="Opera">
    <option value="Safari">
  </datalist>
</form>

The autocomplete Attribute

The input autocomplete attribute specifies whether a form or an input field should have autocomplete on or off.

Autocomplete allows the browser to predict the value. When a user starts to type in a field, the browser should display options to fill in the field, based on earlier typed values.

The autocomplete attribute works with <form> and the following <input> types: text, search, url, tel, email, password, datepickers, range, and color.

<form action="/action_page.php" autocomplete="on">
  <label for="fname">First name:</label>
  <input type="text" id="fname" name="fname"><br><br>
  <label for="lname">Last name:</label>
  <input type="text" id="lname" name="lname"><br><br>
  <label for="email">Email:</label>
  <input type="email" id="email" name="email" autocomplete="off"><br><br>
  <input type="submit" value="Submit">
</form>

Tip: In some browsers you may need to activate an autocomplete function for this to work (Look under “Preferences” in the browser’s menu).

Try this example by your self, here is the editor

See the Pen try example by Arpit (@soniarpit) on CodePen.

hope you like it. happy coding 🙂

previous: #24 HTML Input types

next: #26 HTML Input form* Attributes

reference: w3schools, javatpoint

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