History of programming language | Different Generation

history of programming languageHistory of programming right? wait, what is a programming language? the answer is here, We use different languages like Hindi, English, Gujarati, Marathi etc. for the communication.  Similar in the computer, a programming language is the formal language design to communicate an instruction to a machine, particularly a computer.

Now let's see the history of programming languages. so we see each generation of programming languages.

History of programming language | Different Generation

First Generation  (1940)

In 1942 the first generation computer started making. so we need language to communicate right. So that time introduces binary language almost at 1940.

This is a very basic low level or called machine level language. This is the binary code only 1 and 0 are used.

Programmers design code by hand and transfer into a computer using punchcard, punch or tape or flickering switches.

This is machine level language, so a computer is capable to understand the code and no need for any translator for the code. This is machine specific language.

The modern computer still uses this language at machine level because the computer only understands the binary right. so many compilers translate the modern language to the machine level.

Following example shows "Hello World" in binary
01001000 01100101 01101100 01101100 01101111 00100000 01010111 01101111 01110010 01101100 01100100
Hello World program
I can't remember easily these numbers. So, this is the main disadvantage of all time.

Second generation language (1950)

This language is known as assembly or low-level language and this language almost introduce in 1950.

This language is written in alpha-numeric code also known as mnemonics code. After write code, the code is converted into machine level language using assembler.

This language used in kernel and hardware driver, but more often find use in extremely intensive processing such as games, video editing, graphics manipulation/rendering.

This language writes in alpha-numeric words so we understand easily and easy to find errors. that's cool right.

Like machine language, this also machine dependent/specific. So programmer also needs to understand the machine or hardware.

RISC(Reduced Instruction Set Computer) and CISC(Complex Instruction Set) are the examples of 2nd generation language.

SUB AX,BX
MOV CX,AX
MOV DX,0 
                                      
This is simple than machine code. Isn't it.

Third generation language (1950)

This language comes in almost in 1950. This the high-level language. The main advantage is we write our code in a native language (English).  This feature makes easy to understand and remember the code. It's cool right.

This language uses a compiler to convert code into binary (machine understandable code) so a computer can understand our instruction. And this is the machine independent language. But it is less efficient and time-consuming than first and second generation language but not slow than our work so it's awesome don't worry.

There are the types of High-level language.

1. Algebraic Formula-Type Processing

These types of languages use to solve mathematical and statistical problems. Like,
  • BASIC(Beginners All Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code)
  • FORTRAN(Formula Translation)
  • PL/I(Programming Language, version 1)
  • ALGOL(Algorithmic Language)
  • APL(A Programming Language)
  • C


2. Business Data Processing

These languages are able to maintain data processing procedures and problems involved in handling a file. some language like
  • COBOL (Common Bussiness Oriented Language)
  • RPG (Report Program Generator)


3. String and list processing

This is used in string manipulation, including search patterns and inserting and deleting a character. languages like,
  • LISP(List Processing)
  • Prolog(Program in Logic)


4. Programming languages(approx 50 types in Wikipedia)

In OOP, the computer program is divided into objects. a programming language like,
  • C++
  • JAVA
  • Objective C or C#


5. Visual programming languages

These programming languages are designed for building a Windows-based application. like
  • Visual Basic
  • Visual Java
  • Visual C


Fourth generation language (1970)

This language is a very high-level language and also known as non-procedural language. This language is application specific.

Fourth generation language needs approximately one-tenth the number of statements that a high-level language needs to achieve the same result. Programming languages like Query Language (SQL), MATLAB.

Fifth generation language (1990)

This language almost introduces in 1990. It is based on solving constraints given to the program rather than using an algorithm written by a programmer.

Very closely to resembles human speech. Like apple Siri, they search in the mobile if we tell about something access.

Programming languages like Prolog, mercury, ops5, python also etc. This languages uses Artificial Intelligence and made realistically.

A big big example of fifth generation languages is JARVIS in iron-man right. Ya, this is not real but Mark Zuckerburg made this type of system in their home. And another example of AI is Sofia Robot, you heard about it right.


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